Inclusivity is as much a mindset as universal design, albeit with a broader goal. Inclusivity is the policy of including people who might otherwise be excluded or marginalized. This includes people with handicaps and learning disabilities, as well as diverse populations and minorities. For example, by designing for users with bad internet connectivity, we are being more inclusive of those who are unable to afford high speed internet connections.
Complete Beginner’s Guide to Universal Design, UX Booth, Editorial Team
While as user experience and design professionals we often use personas in our design process, in my experience rarely do we consider users with different abilities. UX Booth uses the term Universal Design to remind us that age and ability, both physical and mental, impact our experiences.
What is interaction cost?
“The interaction cost is the sum of efforts — mental and physical — that the users must deploy in interacting with a site in order to reach their goals”
RALUCA BUDIU, Nielsen Norman Group
I regularly refer back to an article by Nielsen Norman Group (N/N Group) on interaction cost. According to N/N Group the ideal interaction cost is zero.
With an interaction cost of zero, when a user visits a website the information they need will be right in front of them, no effort required.
Sketching is an important tool in the UX design process. It takes you away from the screen and gives you the opportunity to design quickly and effectively. In order to make the process smoother there are a few steps you can follow.
The first rule of finding out what people want: Don’t ask what people want.
― David Travis, The 7 deadly sins of user research
It is futile to do with more things that which can be done with fewer
William of Ockham, Summa Totius Logicae, i. 12
Don’t ignore edge cases, this is where your product breaks
Sara Wachter-Boettcher, Content for Kindness, NUX4
Sometimes you don’t need a brilliant idea, or even be a first-mover, to start a successful business. You just need to get off your ruminating ass and just do it. This is a lesson especially applicable to those locked down by the golden handcuffs of a cushy job and a steady paycheck.
Jeffery To, April 28 2010, It doesn’t matter if a cat is black or white, so long as it catches mice.
Authority is about influencing behaviour through credibility. People are more likely to take action if the message comes from a credible and authoritative source. That’s why you’ll hear people name dropping and it’s also what drives retweets on Twitter.
How to use it
We all look to guidance and direction. Experiences should communicate confidence and assurance. In an uncertain or new space the presence of an authority figure will reassure people.
Demonstrate the knowledge and experience a business has in it’s area of expertise to build confidence and reassure people. Consider demonstrating authority through showing social activity, people tend to follow the behaviour patterns of people like them.
For me, the definition of great user experience is when people don’t have to think about an object, they just use it.
In order for us to design online experiences that can be used ‘without thought’, the insights that drive our design solutions need to be derived from understanding people and their experiences, behaviours, perceptions and needs.
Here, empathy is key.
The different types of empathy
Philosopher Roman Krznaric outlines two definitions of empathy: affective empathy and cognitive empathy.